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A frozen conflict, reactivated in 2020



1947. Independence of India, which will integrate the state of Jammu and Kashmir, including the former kingdom of Ladakh. Kashmir, a predominantly Muslim region, will be the object of three wars between India and Pakistan.

1951. Mao Zedong’s China annex Tibet, neighbor of Ladakh. In 1960, India welcomed the Dalai Lama and his government in exile to Dharamsala.

1962. China seizes Aksai Chin, Indian territory of 37,000 km2, located in the extension of Ladakh, at the junction of Xinjiang and Tibet. A disputed border, known as the “Line of Actual Control”, has since separated India and China in this region. Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim, in the Indian Himalayas, are also grounds for contention between the two giants.

August 2019. The government of New Delhi is withdrawing from Jammu and Kashmir its constitutional privileges. Ladakh comes under the direct authority of New Delhi.

June 15, 2020. Twenty Indian soldiers and an undisclosed number of Chinese soldiers are killed in a border clash in Ladakh.

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