The text resulting from the proposals of the Citizens’ Convention will be examined at the Assembly from the end of March. Supposed to put France on the right path to fight against global warming, it is criticized from all sides.
Hardly placed on the table that it already makes a stir. The law project “Climate and resilienceResulting from the work of the Climate Convention arrives this Wednesday in the Council of Ministers, before its consideration in the Assembly from the end of March. For nine months, the 150 citizens drawn by lot had the task of proposing measures aimed at “reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% by 2030 in a spirit of social justice“. The resulting bill “anchors ecology in the daily life of the French“, We congratulate Matignon. The government assures us: the 65 articles presented resume 40% of their measures and must make it possible to “to secure»Between half and two-thirds of the reduction in emissions expected by 2030, according to initial estimates which will be refined in the coming days.
An enthusiasm far from being shared: for some, this project intends to make new with old, by imposing constraints and taxes on an economy already hampered by the health crisis. For the others, it lacks ambition and only unravel the proposals of the Climate Convention. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council (Cese) evokes measures “relevant but often limited, often deferred, often subject to conditions such that one doubts they will be implemented in the near term“. Here are the most emblematic:
– Creation of a “CO2-Score “: section 1 of the bill is unlikely to be the most contested. It is about establishing a kind of “nutri-scoreFor the climate, intended to inform consumers about the carbon footprint of the products and services they buy, while encouraging “companies to eco-design their products“. The text provides for making this display compulsory on various ranges of products and services marketed in France – the list of which must be specified “din compliance with the requirements of European Union law»- as the feedback from the experiments. Either within five years. The 150 citizens proposed its generalization as early as 2024, which the government deemed premature. You should know that the idea is not entirely new: the law on the circular economy adopted a year ago already provided for 18 months of experimentation for environmental labeling in the broad sense, starting with the sector of clothing. In any case, it is difficult to quantify the impact of this type of measure which rather aims “to induce a change of mentality“, We admit to the Ministry of Ecological Transition.
– End of the rental of thermal strainers in 2028
Housing is the second sector that emits the most greenhouse gases in France, with 20% of national emissions. In order to reduce tenants’ energy bills, article 41 aims to prohibit the rental of thermal strainers from 2028. These are the approximately 5 million homes classified F or G, which will be considered as “indecent“. A year after the law was enacted, the owners of these strainers will have to do some work if they want to be able to increase the rents. However, this measure only concerns “one third of thermal strainers“, Those which are rented, and not those occupied by the owner, underlines Claire Bordenave, co-rapporteur of the Cese opinion. The 150 citizens had gone much further by proposing to make the global energy renovation of buildings compulsory by 2040 for all.
– Ban on advertising for fossil fuels. This is what Article 4 provides, which is supposed to be effective from the entry into force of the text once a decree has specified the list of energies in the sights. The impact of this measure remains uncertain, however, not least because advertisements praising an oil well are relatively rare. Another article also provides for the establishment “codes of good conduct “Guaranteed by the CSA in order to reduce the promotion of products”having a negative impact on the environment“. Here again, the contours of the project and its impact remain vague. The 150 proposed to ban outright advertising of polluting products such as SUVs; but that was before the pandemic, and the crisis in the automotive sector in particular. The government did not follow suit.
– Low emission zones in large cities. Transport remains the sector emitting the most greenhouse gases in France (30% of emissions). Article 25 makes it compulsory to set up “low-emission mobility zones»For the 45 agglomerations of more than 150,000 inhabitants by December 31, 2024. The most polluting cars may be prohibited there from 2023 in the event of poor air quality. 30 km / h zone, development of cycling, public transport or carpooling… It is up to local elected officials to define the most effective parameters.
– End of excessively polluting vehicles announced. Article 28 states that as of January 1, 2030 will end “the sale of new passenger cars emitting more than 95 gCO2 / km», With the exception in particular of vehicles intended for specific uses, such as utility vehicles. “In order to give the automotive industry time to organize itself, a target for 2025 is not proposed.As recommended by the Climate Convention, according to the government. On the other hand, the 150 provided for counterparts for buyers such as a zero-interest purchase loan or green stickers giving access to specific rights, which did not appear in the bill. “For the most precarious households, this kind of loan does not solve anything“, Is justified to Matignon by adding that micro-credit solutions are notably on the table. As a reminder, the 2019 mobility orientation law provides for the end of the sale of cars using fossil fuels by 2040.
– Possible return of the ecotax. Article 31 provides for the ability to legislate by ordinance to allow regions that wish to create a road eco-tax for heavy goods vehicles. The objective: to promote the transport of goods by less emitting means such as river or rail transport. As a reminder, a project to tax heavy goods vehicles was abandoned in 2014 after the sling led by “red caps», Especially in Brittany. Does the government therefore intend to pass the hot potato on to communities? Matignon explains that discussions are currently underway on “the possibility for regions and departments to recover part of the national road network on a voluntary basis. So the operation and maintenance of these roads would be their responsibility… as well as the funding.
– Ban on air flights on journeys provided by direct train in less than 2h30. This is a light version of the 150 proposal which wanted to extend this measure to journeys of less than 4 hours. The measure would therefore concern a Paris-Bordeaux link, but not Paris-Marseille. Article 35 provides for arrangements, in particular for journeys with a connection. The idea is also to facilitate train-plane transitions at airports. In addition, all domestic flights will have to be progressively compensated for 100% by 2024.
– Halve the artificialization of soils. The concreteization of the soils swallows up the equivalent of a department like the Drôme every ten years, with several effects: degradation of ecosystems, loss of biodiversity, reduction of agricultural areas and GHG absorption capacities. Articles 46 and 47 provide for halving the rate of artificialization by 2030 compared to the previous decade. Article 50 provides for a ban on the creation of new shopping centers leading to artificialization of the land, with however possible exemptions for surfaces of less than 10,000 square meters under conditions.
– Creation of an ecocide offense. Articles 63, 64 and 65 propose the creation of a general pollution offense with the qualification of ecocide in the event of intentional destruction of the environment leading to serious and lasting effects on ecosystems, i.e. for at least ten years. The offense of ecocide will be punishable by 10 years’ imprisonment and 4.5 million euros.
SEE ALSO – Climate: are Europeans doing too much?